To calculate the income tax, you need to calculate some other things first viz. total income, total taxable income and exemptions. After calculation of these things, you can calculate income tax payable.
First step is basically the calculation of Total Income. Total income includes income from salary paid by the employer or employers in the certain financial year, income from house property plus any rental income, income from capital gains which include income from sale of assets like house and shares, income from business/ profession which may include income from freelancing and income from other sources which is very common like income from interest on savings account, FD and income from bonds.
Adding up these all incomes, you can reach the total income, the calculation of which is the first step towards tax calculation.
Second step is to calculate Gross Total Income. There are certain exemptions/ deductions which can be claimed on income but up to a specific limit. This means the exemption limit is straight away subtracted from the total income. The income left after exemptions is gross total income. The exemptions include:
*these rates are as per metropolitan cities
Third step is to calculate Gross Taxable Income. There are certain specified investment vehicles, investment on which gives an exemption from income tax. Hence these investments need to be lessened from the gross total income to arrive at Gross taxable income. The amount eligible for deductions with respect to investment types is as follows:
*there are many more such investment vehicles which can be claimed for exemption.
Last step is to calculate tax on the gross taxable income as per the given slabs of taxation. These slabs are:
Case: Mr Goud receives a basic salary of Rs 60,000 per month (pm), HRA of Rs 20,000 pm, transportation allowance of Rs 10,000 pm, special allowance of Rs 5,000 pm and an annual LTA of Rs 20,000. He pays Rs 10,000 as medical bills. He lives in Delhi and pays Rs 20,000 as rent. Apart from this, he earns Rs 12,500 as interest in savings bank account and Rs 20,000 as interest on FDs. He has also invested Rs 60,000 in PPF, Rs 50,000 in ELSS and pays Rs 60,000 as LIC premium. He also pays Rs 10,000 as medical insurance premium in a year.
7,20,000+ 2,40,000+ 1,20,000+ 60,000+ 20,000+ 10,000 out of which HRA is exempted up to 1,80,000, TA up to 19,200, LTA up to 12,000 and medical bill reimbursement up to 10,000. This comes to be 11, 70,000 less 2, 21,200 = 9, 48,800(A).
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